TERMS TO KNOW
ADT (androgen-deprivation therapy)
ADT works to lower levels of male hormones that help prostate cancer grow. ADT is used to treat prostate cancer that has returned after surgery and radiation therapy, or cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Advanced prostate cancer
Cancer that has spread outside the prostate to other parts of the body.
ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
A substance that may be released into the bloodstream when bones break down.
Male sex hormones like testosterone.
Bisphosphonates treat cancer that has spread to the bone. They are used to protect the bone from the damaging effects of cancer.
Cancer that has spread to your bones, but initially started in a different part of the body.
This test of the entire skeleton can show if prostate cancer has spread to the bones.
Chemotherapy may be used when prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland and hormone therapy isn’t working. Its goal is to destroy cancer cells by stopping them from growing or dividing into more cancer cells.
This type of therapy can block an enzyme that stops the testicles from making testosterone. It can also interfere with androgen receptors that receive and transmit signals, which may reduce tumor growth.
Immunotherapy uses a person’s own immune system to fight and kill cancer cells.
mCRPC (metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer)
The medical term for when prostate cancer has spread to bone and the cancer is no longer responding to therapies aimed at lowering testosterone.
A substance such as a sugar pill or an injection of water, given under the belief that it is an effective treatment.
PSA (prostate-specific antigen)
A substance that is released into the bloodstream and is usually at high levels in men with prostate cancer.
PSA (prostate-specific antigen) test
A test that screens for prostate cancer, but is also an important tool for men with the disease to determine how their cancer is reacting to treatment.
A substance that gives off radiation as it decays.
Alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals treat cancer that has spread to the bone. They are injected into a vein (intravenously, or IV) and travel throughout the body to settle predominantly in areas of bone affected by cancer.
Beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals are used to treat bone pain due to cancer that spread to the bone. They are injected into a vein (intravenously, or IV).
Radiation therapy including EBRT to treat pain
Radiation kills cancer cells by destroying the part responsible for controlling how cells grow and divide. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT), a type of radiation, provides relief from the painful symptoms of bone metastases.